عن ماذا أكتب؟

عن ماذا أكتب؟ هل أكتب عن عدوٍّ قضى على أحلامٍ بريئةٍ أو أكتب عن أشلاء أطفال تناثرت على أرض القدس؟ هل أكتب عن الامهات اللواتي تقبلن رؤوس اولادهم الشهداء في الكفن أم أكتب عن الأمهات اللواتي تنتظرن أولادهم في سجون الأسر؟ هل أكتب عن فلسطين التي لا تعرف إلا معنى المقاومة و الاستشهاد أم أكتب عن سوريا الأبية التي لا زالت تقاوم حرب الإرهاب؟ هل أكتب عن دموع النازحين أم عن دموع الفاقدين؟ هل أكتب عن الطائفية اللبنانية أم أكتب عن الجيش المذبوح على الحدود؟ هل أكتب عن الإرهاب الذي يقتل بإسم الإسلام أم أكتب عن أمراء و ملوك العرب الذين يستمتعون و هم يشاهدون بلادهم العربية تحترق تحت لهيب المؤامرات؟ هل أكتب عن معانات الشعوب أم أكتب عن القلوب التي لا تجد راحة و طمأنينة في وطنهم؟ عذراً أيها القارئ فقد جفى قلمي و لم يعد بإمكانه كتابة المزيد من الألم و الجرح.

تمرّ الأيّام…

تمرّ الأيام و لا أرى أيّ تحوّل إيجابيّ في مجتمعاتنا العربيّة لا أرى أي تغيير… لا أرى أيّ تحضّر… لا أشعر بأيّ جاذبيّة تشدني إلى العروبة العربية. كلّما أخذتني الأيّام رأيت ما يخذلني ما يُتعب قلبي ما يجعلني أسير نحو الإستسلام و الإحباط. فيا أيّها العرب أنظروا حولكم أنظروا إلى ما فعلتم. أراضيكم التي كنت أراها كجنان صرت أراها كجحيم ممتلئة بنيران الجهل و التخلف… عقولكم نخرتها وسواس العداوة … قلوبكم التي لا طالما كنت أعتقد أنها نقية و صافية اكتشفت أنها سوداء مفعمة بالخبث و الأنانية… رميتم ورائكم القضية الفلسطينية و غرّتكم فكرة “الجهاد”. الجهاد ضد المسلم؟ هكذا تفسرون القرآن و الانجيل؟ هكذا علمكم النبي و المسيح؟ أصبحتم ترتكبون  الأخطاء و الشهوات و تؤمنون بها حتى أصبحت جزءاً من حياتكم اليومية. لقد خاب ظنّي بكم أيها العرب فصدقت يا نزار عندما قلت:”إنهم يريدون أن يفتحوا العالم و هم عاجزون عن فتح كتاب.”

Life

When you start to grow up, with time you begin to realize that just because you treat people right, doesn’t mean they’ll treat you right. You realize that just because you’re truthful doesn’t mean you won’t get lied to. You watch people jump from relationship to relationship, losing their souls trying to force love. You see people you thought you knew acting out of character just so strangers find them impressive. Some people make themselves easy to cut off, no need to get angry at their actions, just thank them for saving your time. So then you smarten up and you learn not to let selfish people surprise you, you learn not to let users upset you, you learn how to let the liars go and the fakers fail. And you stop, and you thank God for growth, the kind of growth that helps you accept and see things clearly… 

تحقير الصحافة باسم العدالة

تحقير الصحافة باسم العدالة

هل خاب ظنّكم في الصحافة؟ تعتبرون أن هذا غبر مقبول؟ تظنون أنّها عرقلة سير العدالة؟ عن أيّ عدالة تتكلمون؟ عن العدالة التي نهبت و سرقت أموال الشعب اللبناني و الحكومة اللبنانية؟ أم عن العدالة التي اعتمدت على شهود زور؟ تتهمون الصحافة لأنهم عملوا على ابراز الحقيقة؟ هذه هي تهمتهم؟ فنحن فخورين بهم و على ما قاموا به. كرمى خيّاط تمثلني و نعم لدعم حريّة الصحافة اللبنانيّة.

– نعيمة حيدر

The Arab Spring

 

Introduction:

December 17 2010 is a date that will never be forgotten, a date in which Arabs woke up from the humiliation they were living in, a date whereby the concept of revolution is back again, a date where most of the Arabs started demanding and protesting for their rights using the famous slogan they created which is “Isqat Al Nizam’. Tunisia was the first Arab country to undergo the revolution. The revolution happened because of an incident that occurred with a 26 year old guy Mohamed Bouazizi. Mohamed Bouazizi is a Tunisian guy with a computer science degree, he couldn’t find any job in his country in order to live so he decided to sell vegetables and fruits on a cart in the street in order for him to live and survive. His cart was placed without a license therefore, the police confiscated his goods and a police women slapped him on the face. Bouazizi felt humiliated, disgraced, and the act of the police woman was against his dignity so he had no other choice unless setting himself on fire and burning himself in front of the governor’s office. Bouazizi survived from his suicide attempt but then passed away after few days due to the severe burn in his body. After this horrific incident Tunisian citizens started protesting and asking for their rights. Similarly in Egypt, a revolution occurred because of an incident that occurred which is the incident of the guy Khalid Saeed. Khalid Saeed was arrested by the police and was beaten till death. This unhuman and degrading punishment sparked a revolution in Egypt against Mubarak’s regime. Also in Bahrain, the majority of the population is shitta but the rural was Sunni, therefore the shitte citizens did not accept this fact because they are being treated differently and their rights are not being practiced so they did a revolution against Al Khalifi regime.

All these incidents helped in sparking a revolution in their countries. Arabs started protesting and demanding their rights and they thought that their rights are being violated and not being practiced. The main human rights demand of the protestors was right to work knowing that most of the educated youth are unemployed due to still economies, freedom from torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment such as Bouazizi’s and Saeed’s incidents, freedom of opinion and expression, right to non-discrimination (Bahrain), right to health, right to education, right to social security, and right to have an adequate standard of living including adequate food and housing. In general all these countries that went through revolutions were demanding and protesting mainly for these common rights between them and the only solution was to change the government or the regime and replace it with a better one.

Arab governments and principles of universality of human rights:

In the past, Arab countries were all mainly under colonial rules and the idea of human rights showed up during that colonial period. (1945-1960). The UN charter was the first instrument to adopt principles of human rights such as the universality, inalienability, indivisibility, and interdependence of human rights. This question is always asked did Arab governments adopt the principles of universality of human rights before the Arab spring. In order to answer this question I will talk about every principle providing it with examples and state whether the Arab governments did adopt the principles or no. First, the universality of human rights, it means that rights are applied equally and indiscriminately to everyone regardless his or her sex, race, gender, religion, nationality, color and etc… For example, in Bahrain in October 2010 before the uprising that occurred Al Khalifa government suspected 24 sites Bahrainian citizens by accusing them that they are involved in terrorism attacks in Iraq. Al Khalifa government always treated the Shitta in a different way than the Sunni in Bahrain knowing that the majority of population in Bahrain is shitte and not Sunni therefore the regime is of Sunni sect. Second, the inalienability of human rights which means that no one can take away your rights except in specific or legally defined situations. The inalienability of rights was absent in most of the Arab countries before the Arab spring and human rights violations was spread. For example, in Libya during Muammar Gaddafi’s regime the citizen was living under dictatorship whereby 40% of the population were living in tents with no education, health, nor adequate standards of living. Libyans rights were violated by the regime in which most of them were deprived of their right of education and health. Libyans suffered from this regime whereby many the right to a fair trial was absent in which many Libyans were arbitrary arrested, kidnapped, and tortured. Similarly in Iraq during Saddam Hussein’s regime, in April 1991 Saddam’s forces committed massacres against the Kurdish and the Shiite killing up to 100,000 Kurds and 130,000 Shiites. Third, the indivisibility of human rights which means that rights cannot be divided but should have equal statuses and no hierarchy. This means that the poor and the rich should have the same rights since human rights are universal but unfortunately we see the opposite in Arab countries since all the poor doesn’t have the right to work, right to education, and right to health while the rich have access to these rights. This happened and is still happening in many countries such as Syria, Yemen, Egypt and etc… Finally, the interrelated or interdependent of rights which means that each right depends on the other and the fulfillment of one right entails wholly or partially the fulfillment of the other right. Also this principle is not practiced in most of the Arab governments because in every Arab country there is a high percentage of poor people which are not being able to live because they have no food to eat. A perfect example would be Egypt, due to the large population in Egypt and the high percentage of poverty there are many people who suffer from hunger whereby their life is threatened. Therefore their right to food is being violated and the government did not help them overcome this issue therefore it presupposes their right to life.

As we can notice before the Arab spring the principles of human rights was not practiced. Arab governments criticized the principles of universality of human rights. The main argument that the Arab’s argued about the idea of human rights is a western concept and they didn’t accept it because they thought that it was against Sharia therefore in several countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, legislations were formed according to Sharia law and did not accept the idea of human rights since it was viewed as a western idea. For example in Saudi Arabia the universality of human rights is not applied because based on sharia law as they state women should not have the same rights as men therefore women are not allowed to drive or work and they should always cover their face with a veil. Moreover this shows that they are discriminating between genders and violating human rights.

The main purpose of doing all these revolutions in the Arab countries is in order for the citizens to ensure their human rights and stand up against the violations of the rights that were happening therefore they tried as much as they can to change the way human rights are being perceived in the Arab world. For example in Egypt after their first revolution against Mubarak’s regime the Islamic brotherhood was next whereby Mohamad Moursi became the leader of Egypt changed the laws and legislations into sharia law therefore the Egyptians realized that they have done nothing in the first revolution because the Islamic brotherhood also violated many rights such as rights concerning women so they sparked another revolution against him and brought him down and till now we can still see protestors in Egypt. In Bahrain although a huge revolution occurred against Al Khalifa regime in which there were many massive demonstration, violence, and protestors demanding for the Shiite rights nothing happened. Al Khalifa is still leading the country and they couldn’t change this. In Libya the citizens succeeded in changing their leader Muammar Gaddafi that was known as a dictator but even after his death small things were only changed but the major problems are still there, militias are still there and civil war is happening nowadays in Libya. In Syria the revolution has been there for about 3 years and nothing is changed yet more destructions, killed people and blood. As a main result during and after the Arab spring the Arab countries made a small difference only but still there are major rights that are violated but the Arab spring was able to reinforce the idea of universality of human rights and disputing the absolute concept of sovereignty.

Dynamics of change of human rights:

International organizations and international communities with no doubt is concerned about the issue of the Arab spring therefore while talking from a top-bottom approach these international organizations and communities should put a great pressure on the state that is violating the rights of their citizens and try to stop them, but for example in Syria unfortunately the revolution is still there and has been there for about 3 years and the international organization did not succeed in doing anything about this issue knowing that hundreds and hundreds are being killed each day. Even before the Arab spring as I mentioned previously human rights were being violated constantly and the international organization and communities did nothing about it, that’s why revolutions started. The Security Council pressured several states because they are violating human rights by resorting those different sanctions such as economic sanctions and financial or diplomatic restrictions. Awkwardly this didn’t work out because most of the country’s that were punished did not care and did not change anything therefore revolutions started.

Another approach that played a huge role in the Arab spring is the bottom-up approach or the spiral model. This approach occurs when the grass root (people) level start demanding their own human rights such as right to work, right to dignity, and etc… in collaboration with non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations such as women organization that played role in the revolution that occurred in Egypt. In this approach the grass root level with the organizations put their human rights demands in a framework as laws and the institutions help them to implement these laws. Above the laws comes the constitution that undergoes a procedure in which it believes that all factions of the society are included (socialists, women, economists, and etc…) whereby it helps in the balance of power and in human rights factors. Their goal is to change the legislations that’s unfair and empower the institutions more because they believe that they don’t have an effective legal system therefore they confronted to the state against their ideologies that deny these rights. This approach helped the grass root human rights movement to ask for their needs and put a big pressure on the government by defining their needs and respecting human dignity. The social media also helped the grass root level to spark the revolution and made their voice be heard all around the world for example Bouazizi’s incident was all over the media such as Facebook and Twitter similarly as Khalid Saeed’s picture it was all over the media and this made the grass root to spark a revolution and ask for their needs and rights. It also helped the people living in poverty to overcome their daily struggles.

Both top-bottom and bottom-up approach should be applied in order for a state to comply and respect human rights because it helps in the use of current system with society in order to have access in political and economic resources. Second, if the government or the state is being pressured from the top and the bottom it will definitely comply and change its legislations knowing that both the citizens and the international organizations are being against this state. One approach is never enough to change the legislation of the state therefore both approaches should be applied.

Conclusion:

The Arab spring has been a reflection of the human rights regime. The Arab countries finally stood up for their rights that were being violated since a long time in which they succeeded in some points and failed in another therefore there should be a strong collaboration between the grass root and the international organizations and civil society organizations in order to build on and increase human rights achievements of the Arab spring. Therefore these institutions, civil societies, and NGO’s should work more together and influence people with their programs. These institutions are important and play a big role because when civil society is weakened such that individuals no longer have a way to freely protest government policies, it becomes easy for the state to abuse basic human and civil rights. Therefore institutions should implement the concept of human rights more and try as much as they can to help the grass root in order to maintain they needs and rights in order to build on and increase human rights achievements in the Arab Spring. 

 

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A New Journey…

I never expected my life to change in University even though it’s only my second semester. First, I was able to do the major I always dreamt of since I was in the 8th grade: “Journalism”. My parents refused the idea completely and considered it a risky major in which they never encouraged me to become a journalist. Regardless of what they said, I stood up for what I wanted and chased my dream because I believe that one day I would be able to make a change! Second, “LAU Model Arab League”. I never thought I would participate in such a program, it simply never crossed my mind, but until that day…. It was a normal Wednesday, waiting for my sociology teacher in class and then one of my classmates, which I consider him now as my big brother approached me and advised me to participate in this program. I applied and eventually became an official trainer at MAL. It changed my life. I met my second family, a family that is based on love, enthusiasm, passion, bravery, courage, and spirit. We simply believe that through empowering the youth we can have a better tomorrow! MAL not only changed my life but taught me many important things. This program taught me how to become a better person, to believe in myself, to chase my dreams and never give up easily. I’m cherishing the moments while I’m at Mal now and I simply can’t wait for the upcoming training sessions. Finally, to the new people I met, I just wanted to say that they became an important part in my life through the way they always inspire me, how they believe in me and most importantly how they always encourage me to fulfill my dreams.

Never underestimate yourself or your abilities because you will never know how high you can climb until you reach the top.  

الحلم العربي

هذا هو الحلم الذي لا زال في عقولِ البعض من العرب الذين يؤمنون بجملة “غداً أفضَل” الحلم الذي ترسّخ في أذهان و قلوب العرب الطموحين طوال حياتهم الحلم الذي اعتبروا تحقيقَهُ مباح و غير مستحيل الحلم الذي لم يفارقهم منذ الصِّغَر الحلم الذي أجمعهم على القول بأنّ بلاد العُرب أوطانهم و كُلّ العُرب إخوانهم الحلم الذي ثبَّتهم على عروقِهم العربيّة الحلم الذي زَرَع الأمَل و الرجاء في داخلهم الحلم الذي غَرَسَ عندهم معنى الإنسانيّة.
هذا الحلم لم يتحقّق بل بقيَ حلماً أيُّها الأخوة العرب. تحوّلت هذه الأحلام إلى واقع مريرٍ نعيشُه بألمٍ و حزنٍ حيث قضَت على جميعِ آمالنا و أحلامنا. عدوٌّ يُفَرّقُنا و الكراهيّة تجمَعُنا عدوٌّ يُفَرّقُنا و الفتنة تقتُلنا عدوٌّ يُفَرّقُنا و دماؤنا تذهَبُ هدراً عدوٌّ يُفَرقُنا و دموع أمّهاتنا تذْرف و تبكي على إبنِها الذي ذَهَبَ و عادَ شهيداً عدوٌّ يُفَرقُنا و بلادُنا دُمّرَت و لم يبقى فيها سوى جثث هامدة على الأرضِ ملطّخةٌ بالدِّماء وسماؤنا التي كانت زرقاء و صافية حيث تُحلّق على رحابِها العصافير التي تغني ألحانها الجميلة و الراقية أصبحت ظلماء و سوداء اللّون يحلق فيها الغراب و نسمع نعيقه عدوٌّ يُفَرقُنا و بلادنا أصبح مهجوراً عدوٌّ يُفَرقُنا و أحلامنا إنقَضَت عدوٌّ يُفَرقُنا و العناءُ مستمرّاً.

وطني

وطني يبكي… وطني ينزف… وطني وحيد…وطني يعيشه شعب طائفيّ… شعبٌ لا يؤمن إلاّ بالمذهبيّة و الفتنة… شعبٌ لا يكترث بعروبته… شعب يحقد على أخيهِ فقط لأنّهُ من طائفة أخرى… شعب يقتل إبن وطنه لأنَّ الجهل و الجحد طغى على عقولِهم الناقصة… هذه هي الديمقراطيّة الّتي تفتخرون و تعتزون بها؟ عذراً يا أيّها الشعب إنّكم مخطئون! الديمقراطيّة هي التعبير عن أيّ رأيٍ كان فإذا مواطناً ما شيعيّ و لكنّه يدافع عن موقف 14 آذار أو مواطناً سنيّ يدافع عن موقف 8 آذار فهو حُرّ و يستطيع أن يفكّر كما يشاء لأنّهُ لديه الحريّة التامّة للتعبير عن ما يُريد. إستيقظوا من هذه الغفلة… إستيقظوا و انظروا ما فَعَلتم بالوطن الذي حماكم… الوطن الذي جاهد لكي يحافظ على شعبِه… الوطن الذي ضحّى من أجل كرامة و سيادة شعبه… الوطن الذي حَضَنَكُم بكل ما لديه من حبّ… الوطن الذي تَحَمّلَ أنانيتكم و طيشكم و غباؤكم… الوطن الذي ضمّكم إلى رحاب صدره الواسع و جَمَعَكُم كلكُّم على أنَّكم عرب تجمعكم المودّة و الرحمة. فكيفَ كافَأتموه؟ تخليتُم عنهُ و نسيتموه حيث اتّخذتم السبيل الخاطئ… السبيل الذي لا يملك حسّ الوطنيّة… السبيل الذي يؤمن بالعنصريّة و الحقد على الآخر… السبيل الذي فقد معنى الإنسانيّة… فيا وطني الحبيب لا تحزن و لا تبكي… فكيفَ لشعب يكترِث على وطنه و هو لا يكترث على دماء أخيه؟ 

بلاد العرب أوطاني و كل العرب أخواني : هشام الجخ

 

أسبح باسمك اللهُ وليس سواك أخشاه وأعلم أن لي قدراً سألقاه .. سألقاه وقد عُلّمتُ في صِغَري بأنّ عروبتي شرفي وناصيتي وعنواني وكنا في مدارسنا نردد بعض ألحانِ نغني بيننا مثلا بلاد العرب أوطاني، وكل العرب إخواني وكنا نرسم العربيَّ ممشوقاً بهامته له صدر يصدّ الريح اذ تعوي مهاباً في عباءته وكنا محضَ اطفال تحركنا مشاعرنا ونسرح في الحكايات التي تروي بطولتنا وأن بلادنا تمتد من أقصى الى أقصى وأن حروبنا كانت لأجل المسجد الاقصى وان عدونا صهيونَ شيطانٌ له ذيلُ وأن جيوش أمتنا لها فعل كما السيل سأبحر عندما أكبر أمر بشاطئ البحرين في ليبيا وأجنى التمر من بغداد في سوريا وأعبر من موريتانيا الى السودان أسافر عبر مقديشيو إلى لبنان وكنت أخبئ الأشعار في قلبي ووجداني بلاد العرب أوطاني وكل العرب إخواني وحين كبرتُ لم أحصل على تأشيرةٍ للبحر لم أبحر وأوقفني جوازٌ غير مختومٍ على الشباك لم أعبر حين كبرت لم أبحر ولم أعبر كبرت أنا وهذا الطفل لم يكبر تقاتلنا طفولتنا وأفكار تعلمنا مبادئها على يدكم أيا حكام أمتنا تعذبنا طفولتنا وأفكار تعلمنا مبادئها على يدكم أيا حكام امتنا ألستم من نشأنا في مدارسكم تعلمنا مناهجكم تعلمنا على يدكم بأن الثعلب المكار منتظرٌ سيأكل نعجة الحمقى إذا للنوم ما خلدوا ألستم من تعلمتم بأن العود محمي بحزمته ضعيف حين ينفرد لماذا الفرقة الحمقاء تحكمنا ألستم من تعلمنا على يدكم أنِ اعتصموا بحبل الله واتحدوا لماذا تحجبون الشمس بالأعلام تقاسمتم عروبتنا ودَخَـلاٌ بينكم صرنا كما الأنعام سيبقى الطفل في صدري يعاديكم تقسّمنا على يدكم فتَبّت كل أيديكم أنا العربي لا أخجل ولدت بتونس الخضراء من أصل عمانيٍّ وعمري زاد عن ألفٍ وأمي لم تزل تحبل أنا العربي في بغداد لي نخلٌ وفى السودان شرياني أنا مصري موريتانيا وجيبوتي وعمّانِ مسيحيٌّ وسنيٌّ وشيعيٌّ و كرديٌّ ودرزيٌّ وعلويٌّ انا لا احفظ الاسماء والحكام اذ ترحل تشتتنا على يدكم وكل الناس تتكتل سئمنا من تشتتنا وكل الناس تتكتل ملأتم فكرنا كذبا و تزويراً وتأليفا انجمعنا يد الله وتبعدنا يد الفيفا؟ هجرنا ديننا عمداً فعدنا الأوس والخزرج نولي جهلنا فينا وننتظر الغبا مخرج أيا حكام أمتنا سيبقى الطفل في صدري يعاديكم يقاضيكم ويعلن شعبنا العربي متحدا فلا السودان منقسمٌ ولا الجولان محتل ولا لبنان منكسر يداوى الجرح منفردا سيجمع لؤلؤات خلجينا العربي في السودان يزرعها فينبت حبها في المغرب العربيّ قمحا يعصرون الناس زيتا في فلسطين الأبية يشربون الاهل في الصومال أبدا سيخرج من عباءتكم رعاها الله للجمهور متقدا هو الجمهور لا أنتم هو الحكام لا أنتم أتسمعني جحافلكم أتسمعني دواوين المعاقل في حكومتكم هو الحكام لا أنتم ولا أخشى لكم أحدا هو الجمهور لا أنتم ولا أخشى لكم أحدا هو الإسلام لا أنتم فكفوا عن تجارتكم وإلا صار مرتدا وخافوا.. إن هذا الشعب حمّال وإن النوق إن صُرمت فلن تجدوا لها لبنا ولن تجدوا لها ولدا أنا باق وشرعي في الهوى باقِ سُقينا الظلم أوعية سقينا الجهل أدعية مللنا السقي والساقي أحذركم سنبقى رغم فتنتكم فهذا الشعب موصول حبائلكم وإن ضعفت فحبل الله مفتول سأكبر تاركا للطفل فرشاتي وألواني ويبقى يرسم العربي ممشوقا بهامته ويبقى صوت ألحاني بلاد العرب أوطاني وكل العرب أخواني